Mechanical products for pest control are quite simple and allow to find out and destroy the agricultural pests with various traps: sticky, takitraps, roller and pheromone traps.
Wet-sticky traps are used to trap flying insects and are useful for indicating the presence of pests. Yellow traps are particularly useful for attracting sciarids, shoreflies, aphids, whitefly and leafminers and will also trap thrips. The blue traps are more attractive to thrips, hence the two colours. Such traps are also useful for picking up signs of pest invasion into a greenhouse from doors or vents.
The glue is on both sides of the plastic trap. The large size of these traps offers maximum sticky surface and they are best hung free floating in the air space above plants. The strips are made of firm, but flexible Polyethylene for long life. There are three holes on each strip to facilitate fixing of the strips to string, nails or surfaces.
Takitraps are dry-sticky traps used to trap flying insects and are used for monitoring pests. Yellow traps are particularly useful for attracting aphids, whitefly and leafminers and will also trap thrips. The blue traps are more attractive to thrips, hence the two colours. The dry-sticky Takitrap is double-sided with 4 removable panels (2 on each side) to monitor pests over a 4 week period.
Roller trap is a continuous roll of yellow, blue, white or transparent polythene film, coated on both sides with insect trapping adhesive, giving a large trapping area. It is intended for use in trapping large numbers of insects, particularly in protected cropping, but will have applications in outdoor crops where dust is not a significant problem. It is designed to offer the most economic method of using sticky traps when comparing available trapping areas. Insect trapping adhesive is especially formulated for the trapping of small flying insects. The colours of Roller trap have been selected as being very attractive to particular insects, which become entangled and held by the adhesive when attempting to land on the trap. For best results suspend Roller trap just above crop height.
Black sticky traps
The new Black Sticky Traps are a new tool for capturing Tuta absoluta in tomato crops. Correct placement of the traps is critical for success. Traps should be placed at 15-20 cm above the ground and in case of higher crops the traps should be placed at 50 cm above the ground. For precautionary purposes one trap is placed at 500 m2, and in case of a large number of pests one trap is plased at 100 m2. Another benefit is that they do not attract the useful insects.
The integrated pest management uses the selective means of influence on populations. Pheromone matters allow insects to be managed without inflicting of other organisms in ecosystem. The pheromone trap captures target species even if the density of population is very low.
The application of pheromone traps is economically acceptable in plant defense against dangerous species in such branches of agricultural production as glass-covered ground (vegetable and ornamental crops), fruit growing (industrial orchards), vine growing (industrial viniculture) and forestry. The most economically dangerous species are Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella), Oriental Fruit Moth (C. molesta), Plum Moth (C. funebrana), Cabbage Armyworm (Mamestra brassicae) and some other species.
Directions for use
The pheromone capsules containing synthetic and biological attractants are specific for certain pest species. The pheromone capsules are available for a capture of more than 50 economically dangerous species of insects.
The traps are located in such a way to minimize the influence of direct sun rays on the trap. Before the start of moth flights the traps are inspected every day and since the moment of the finding of the first moths examinations are conducted 1 time per week. The confines of mass flight are determined in such a way: the start of mass flight is considered the date of the sudden number increase of the moths on the traps, after that their capture within 2–3 counts should be not less than it was at the end of the period of mass flight. The traps are allocated randomly in amounts of 5–20 traps per 1 ha and with a distance between them not less than 50 m. For the getting of the correct statistic analysis of data it is expedient to use no less than 5 frequencies.
The capsules of pheromone are recommended to use in the year of making. But if necessary it is possible their keeping in a hermetic container at a temperature of 3–5°C. There are several modifications of pheromone traps. The most spread of them are funnel and delta traps.
Delta Funnel trap Pheromone lures
Pheromones are practically nontoxic substances which attracts one or several insect species and not dangerous for other animals and men. Working with pheromone materials it is necessary to keep the general procedures of precaution: After work it is necessary to wash hands with soap and in case of the getting of adhesive on the hands it is removed by means of a tampon wetted in solvent (white spirit).