BIOLOGICAL POLLINATION
1Pollination is a very important technological component of agricultural production. Nowadays the pollination of many farms is realized by means of mechanical devices (electric vibrators, percussion onto espaliers) or with the aid of bees. Both of the methods have a lot of negative features and a low effectiveness. The new world tendency comes gradually instead of the ineffective technologies of pollination, which used before. It presents the application of bumble-bees in pollination process. The bumble-bee is an active pollinator of many plant species. Bumble-bee families are used for the pollination of vegetable and small-fruit crops in glasshouses (tomato, eggplant, pepper, cucumber, strawberry and others). Bumble-bee application in pollination can provide the increase of yield-capacity. The addition of yield can amount from 5 to 25%, sometimes to 40%. The quality of fruits is enhanced by means of nutrient concentration rise. Therefore the quantity of marketable and fully-featured production increases and the number of nonconforming fruits decreases. It is observed the improvement of yield storability.
2In dependence on species of cultivated crops and hive modification 5–10 hives with bumble-bees are set per 1 ha of greenhouse area. At first 3 hives should be disposed. After a week when the number of flowers increases one more hive is usually set. Then 2 hives more are added. The period of hive application in a greenhouse amounts to 7–10 weeks. The level of the minimal (7 weeks) and the maximal (10 weeks) periods of using depend on food quantity and the strength of a family. The change of hives is gradually realized after 8 weeks. It is necessary to pay a particular attention to the correct disposition of hives on greenhouse area. The height of hive disposition in the greenhouse under the level of the ground should be 1–1.5 m. The hives should be disposed in such a manner that they are not mechanically damaged. They also mustn’t be exposed to direct sunlight (overheat) and the influence of water (rain, condensate). It is necessary to ensure defense against ants. After the disposition of the hives on permanent places it is necessary to give 2–3 hours for the calming of bumble-bees. Then the bee-entrances can be opened. In the process of chemical treatments the bumble-bees are removed from the greenhouse for a day or more dependently on the kind of chemical.